JEWISH HISTORY - World Events


Jewish History WORLD EVENTS

Monday, December 18, 2006

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70 CE 9th of AV Titus destroys and runsack the Second Temple in Jerusalem stole the Menorah and other vessels from Beit Ha Mikdash back to Rome

70-132 CE

The brutal Adrian has Iudaea Capta: Jerusalem and its surrounding is renamed La

Palestina Romana during the two wars against the Jewish people, over destroyed Sacred Jewish Temple, is erected a temple to Jupiter.

81 ARCH OF TITUS (Rome, Italy)

Which commemorates Titus' conquest of Eretz Israel, was erected by his brother Emperor Domitian. There is a Jewish custom not to walk under the arch which depicts the taking of Jews into captivity as well as the vessels from the Temple.

81 CE September 13, DEATH OF FLAVIUS VESPESIANUS TITUS

(The son of Vespasian). He played an active part in the capture of the Galilee during the Jewish revolt. Upon Vespasian's appointment as ruler of Rome, he was given command of the Roman forces in Eretz-Israel. Titus' name is forever linked to the devastation of the Temple and the brutality of the destruction of Jerusalem. This is based on the writings of Tacitus, a Roman historian. Josephus tried to whitewash Titus and claim that he was against the burning of the Temple. According to talmudic legend Titus challenged God to punish him, where upon God sent in a gnat which ate at his brain causing him terrible headaches until he died. Upon his death he ordered his body to be burned and his ashes scattered so as to prevent the "God of the Jews" from punishing him.

100 —Oldest known synagogue in Western Europe is established in Ostia,, the port of Rome. It serves the resident Jewish community, as well as transient sailors. It is excavated in 1961.

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/italytime.html

115 - 117 THE SECOND ROMAN REBELLION (Roman Empire)

While Trajan (98-117) was busy fighting against the Armenians and Parthians, a revolt which was mainly led by Jews, broke out in Cyprus, Egypt, and Cyrene on the north coast of Africa. In Cyrene, it was led by a Jewish "king" called Lukuas, and in Cyprus by Artemion. In Eretz Israel violence flared in the Jerusalem area and the Galilee where it was known as Polemos shel Kitos (War of Quietus) named after the Moorish General Lucius Quitus who put down the rebellion. After almost a year of fighting, Trajan's General, Marcius Turbo, succeeded in putting down the rebellion. In all of the cities, there was widespread destruction including the capital of Cyprus, Salamis, much of Alexandria, and most of the Island of Cyrene. In Alexandria, the great synagogue and library were destroyed as well. As a result, Jews were forbidden to live in Cyprus. The rebellion forced Trajan to abandon his campaign to conquer Babylon which continued to provide a refuge for the Jews.

135 CE

General Julius Severus puts down the Jewish Revolt in Jerusalem and plows the city under with oxen. He gives the land to his allies and renames the region Syria Palestina.

Palestina I, Palestina II, Palestina III.

193 - 211 LUCIUS SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS (Roman Empire)

Numbered as one of the emperors friendly to the Jews. Part of his attitude was in response to the support he received from the Jewish communities in his war against Pescennius Niger, who had once told a Jewish delegation that he was sorry he couldn't tax the air they breathed. In spite of this, Severus forbade Jews from converting anyone to Judaism. Under his reign Jews could be appointed to public offices, but were exempt from those formalities which were contrary to Judaism.

247 SAMUEL (Babylon)

Samuel became the acknowledged leader of the Jewish community in Babylon. A friend and colleague of Rav, he lived and taught in Nahardea where he was head of the academy. He was also an astronomer who composed a fixed calendar. He did not publish it, however, out of respect for the Patriarchate in Eretz Israel. In monetary and civil matters his rulings were accepted as binding. He also instructed Jews to adopt the laws of whichever land they dwelt in (Dina d'malchuta Dina), thus preparing them for survival in foreign environments. He served for only seven years

259 NEHARDEA (Babylon)

The Jewish community and academy were destroyed by Odenathus of Palmyra while fighting for Rome against the Persians. The academy then moved to Pumbedita. These two foundations ruled Jewish life for approximately 800 years.

. 418 MINORCA (Balearic Islands off Spain's eastern coast)

Severus, the bishop of Minorca, claimed to have forced 540 Jews to accept Christianity upon conquering the Island. This is the first we know of Jews on this Island as well as the first case of Jews being forced to convert or face expulsion. Although in general forced conversions (as laid down by Pope Gregory I) were officially frowned upon, they were considered valid - and backsliding was usually considered heresy. Harsher "no choice" forced conversions began in the 9th century.

429 THEODOSIUS II (Emperor of the Eastern (Byzantine) Roman Empire)

Ordered that all funds raised by Jews to support schools be turned over to his treasury. (They are still known as the patriarchal funds.)

500 THEODORIC (Italy)

King of the Ostrogoths (an Aryan tribe). After conquering Italy (489) he issued an edict confirming protection for the Jews and safeguarding their privileges, which included the right to determine civil disputes and freedom of worship. He also protected their synagogues and persons against incitement by the Church.

600 — Under Pope Gregory I the papacy becomes the supreme authority of the Western Church; establishment of the doctrine, "religio illigitimo," the policy by which Jews were converted through restriction of Jewish religious activity and proffering political and economic inducements to converts. Jews were to be protected from violence, allowed to survive, but were forbidden to attain equal status to Christians

600 ARABIA

Jews had formed many warlike tribes. They were renowned, especially in Yathuolb (Medina), Khaiba and Taima, for their advanced knowledge of irrigation. They introduced the date palm, grape vines and the honey bee.

625 THEODOSIUS (Eretz Israel)

Commander of the returning Byzantinian army. He promised amnesty to Jews who joined the Persians. He too was greeted by Benjamin of Tiberias.

630 ARABIA-KHAIBAR

Despite the surrender of its Arab allies, the Jewish Khaibar tribe succeeded in defending itself. They negotiated a deal whereby half their produce would go to Mohammad and they would be left in peace. Other Jewish tribes, e.g. Fadattr, Tedma, and Magna, concluded similar deals. The Kaibar community continued at least to the 10th century. Other communities weren't so lucky. The Kurazia tribe surrendered after a long siege. 600 males were slaughtered. One beautiful Jewess, Rihana, was added to Mohammed's harem.

654 February 18,

TOLEDO (Spain)

Receswinth, King of the Visigoths, forced Judaizing Christians (converted Jews who still kept Jewish traditions) to swear loyalty to the Church or die. They were forced to spend Jewish and Christian holy days with the clergy, but were not forced to eat pork.

661

BABYLON

The massacre of local non-Moslem populations by the first Caliphs gave way to a practical accommodation, including Omar's encouragement of the Jews to return to Babylon (Persia).

681

TWELTH SYNOD, TOLEDO (Spain)

The Talmud and other Jewish books were burned in Spain. The SYNOD was a local church council whose decrees were not enforced by the entire church.

622 CE flight from Mecca, to Yathrib (Medina) -tradition: invited by the Jews of Medina

Hegira of Mohammed from Mecca to Medina

Islamic era begins July 1 Muslims win the Battle of Badr

Jewish tribe of al-Nadhir is crushed and expelled"

Battle of the Trench (627) Muslims defeat Meccans

"The War of the Trench," where Muslims in Medina repulse attack from Mecca

624 CE. It becomes clear that most of Jews in Medina would never be reconciled with the

Prophet. In January 624 Muhammad makes a creative gesture and tells all in “SALAT” prayer to turn around to pray in direction of Mecca rather than that of Jerusalem.

* Muslims in Medina had no means to earn a living.

There was not enough land for them to farm and, anyhow, they were merchants, not

farmers. So Muslims had to get some money.

They start to raid (GHAZU), a national sport in Arabia which meant to attack a caravan

from a rival tribe but do not kill anybody (to incur a vendetta).

625 CE Jewish tribe of Qaynuqah unsuccessfully revolt Against Mohammed

Battle of Uhud Meccans (Quraysh) defeat Muslims

626 CE in Medina , Mohammed followers attacks the Jewish tribe of Ban-l’MUSTALIQK they slaughtered and ransacked the village, raped and kidnapped their women

Having established himself as the ruler of Medina, Muhammad attacked the Jewish tribe of Banu-‘l-Mustaliq in December of A.D. 626. His followers slaughtered many Jewish tribesmen and looted thousands of their camels and sheep. They also kidnapped 500 of their women.

The night after the battle Muhammad and his brigands staged an orgy of rape. As one of the brigands, Abu Sa’id Khudri, later remembered, a legal problem needed to be resolved first: In order to obtain ransom from the surviving Jews for the captive women, Muslims had pledged not to violate them:

We were lusting after women and chastity had become too hard for us, but we wanted to

get the ransom money for our prisoners. So we wanted to use the Azl [coitus interruptus].

We asked the Prophet about it and he said: "You are not under any obligation not to do it like that [contained in Sahih Bukhari, second only to the Koran in authority]."

627 CE Jewish Qurayza tribe attacked by Mohammed

Treaty of Hudaybiyya

Truce with the Quraysh

Jews of Khaybar are exterminated

on the role of kidnappings in Islamic history and the sunna of Muhammad:

Medina had a large Jewish population that controlled most of the wealth of the city, and

a portion of them at least refused to give their new ruler any kind of religious ‎allegiance. Muhammad, after a long quarrel, appropriated much of their property, and ‎destroyed two Jewish tribes, the Banu Nadir and the Banu Quraizah. Muhammad ‎fought the Banu Nadir

and expelled them from Meccah. According to tradition, in 627 BCE, ‎remnants of the Banu Nadir instigated the formation of a large alliance (Ahzab) of ‎tribes including the Quraysh, the Banu Quraiza and others and mounted an attack on ‎Medina with a force of about 20,000. Muhammad and his followers constructed a ‎trench around Medina as a part of its fortification, purposely making one section ‎narrower than the rest, so that the Meccan attackers would try

to cross the trench at ‎that point. This formed a convenient trap which resulted in the death

of many ‎Meccans. Unable to cross the trench, the Meccans besieged Medina. Medina was ‎saved by a miracle reminiscent of the destruction of Senacharib before Jerusalem. ‎After 27 days of siege, according to tradition, God sent a piercing blast of the cold ‎east wind. The enemy’s tents were torn up, their fires were put out, the sand and rain ‎beat in their faces. Terrified by the portents, they broke camp and lifted the siege. ‎

628 CE Treaty of Hudaybieh -, Muhammad and his followers set out on a pilgrimage to Mecca, and met the ‎Quraysh tribe at Hudaybiyeh, where the Quraysh had assembled to

block the ‎pilgrimage. Instead of fighting, the enemies concluded a treaty and the Muslims ‎agreed not to make the pilgrimage that year. Instead, they turned on the Jews of the ‎town of Khaybar, who were now no longer protected by the Quraysh, and attacked ‎and subjugated

the city.

Jews of Medina refuse to accept Mohammed as Prophet. After consolidating his hold on Medina, Mohammed chased the Jews from their farms and divorced his developing system from both Judaism and Christianity. He ordered the faithful henceforth to pray facing Mecca, not Jerusalem as had been the case up to then. In 628 Mohammed obtained a truce with Mecca allowing his followers to make the pilgrimage to the Kaaba. Mecca became the religious capital of Islam and Medina remained the political capital.

630 BCE Mohammed attacked Mecca, conquered it, and smashed the 360 idols in the Kaaba. He declared the territory surrounding the shrine to be haram forbidden - to all non-Muslims. Even today, no Atheist or Christian could visit the taboo area and escape with his life. Indeed, the entire region of Saudi Arabia in which the holy cities of Mecca and Medina are located (the Hijaz)

is considered by Wahabi Muslims such as Osama bin Laden to be haram and out-of-bounds for American military infidels.

Muhammad and followers left Mecca for Yathrib, an agricultural settlement some 250

miles north of Mecca, where nomad turned settlers (many Jewish now) feuded.

Yathrib would become known as Medina (al-Medinah, the city) “city of the Prophet”

because it became the pattern of a perfect Muslim society. Mohammad’s first act was to build a simple mosque (Ar. masjid: literally, place of prostration). It was a rough building that expressed the austerity of early Islamic ideal. Tree trunks supported the roof, a stone marked the direction of prayer ... and the Prophet stood on a tree trunk to preach.

630 CE- Muhammad returns in triumph to Mecca, destroys idols in Kaaba.

Spends next two years to unite Arabs under Islam.

644-656 Uthman Ibn Affan(who was married to one of mohameds daughters was elected

3rd calif by six of Prophet’s companions. Weaker than his predecessor governed well and won the Muslim more territories all the way to Tripoli Libya. He gave prestigious post to family members . In 656 a mutiny and discontent Arab soldiers broke into Uthmans house in Medina and assassinated him

656 - 661 MOSLEM CIVIL WAR (Medina)

693 DAHRA (Dahiya) AL- KAHINA (Carthage)

Defeated Hassan ibn Noman whose huge army was sent by Caliph Abd al-Malik to conquer the Maghreb (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. It took Hassan ibn Noman five years to regroup and carry on his conquest.

622 CE flight from Mecca, to Yathrib (Medina) -tradition: invited by the Jews of Medina

Hegira of Mohammed from Mecca to Medina

Islamic era begins July 1 Muslims win the Battle of Badr

Jewish tribe of al-Nadhir is crushed and expelled"

Battle of the Trench (627) Muslims defeat Meccans

"The War of the Trench," where Muslims in Medina repulse attack from Mecca

624 CE. It becomes clear that most of Jews in Medina would never be reconciled with the

Prophet. In January 624 Muhammad makes a creative gesture and tells all in “SALAT” prayer to turn around to pray in direction of Mecca rather than that of Jerusalem.

* Muslims in Medina had no means to earn a living.

There was not enough land for them to farm and, anyhow, they were merchants, not

farmers. So Muslims had to get some money.

They start to raid (GHAZU), a national sport in Arabia which meant to attack a caravan

from a rival tribe but do not kill anybody (to incur a vendetta).

625 CE Jewish tribe of Qaynuqah unsuccessfully revolt Against Mohammed

Battle of Uhud Meccans (Quraysh) defeat Muslims

626 CE in Medina , Mohammed followers attacks the Jewish tribe of Ban-l’MUSTALIQK they slaughtered and ransacked the village, raped and kidnapped their women

Having established himself as the ruler of Medina, Muhammad attacked the Jewish tribe of Banu-‘l-Mustaliq in December of A.D. 626. His followers slaughtered many Jewish tribesmen and looted thousands of their camels and sheep. They also kidnapped 500 of their women.

The night after the battle Muhammad and his brigands staged an orgy of rape. As one of the brigands, Abu Sa’id Khudri, later remembered, a legal problem needed to be resolved first: In order to obtain ransom from the surviving Jews for the captive women, Muslims had pledged not to violate them:

“We were lusting after women and chastity had become too hard for us, but we wanted to

get the ransom money for our prisoners”. So we wanted to use the Azl [coitus interruptus].

We asked the Prophet about it and he said: "You are not under any obligation not to do it like that [contained in Sahih Bukhari, second only to the Koran in authority]."

627 CE Jewish Qurayza tribe attacked by Mohammed

Treaty of Hudaybiyya

Truce with the Quraysh

Jews of Khaybar are exterminated

on the role of kidnappings in Islamic history and the sunna of Muhammad:

MEDINA had a large Jewish population that controlled most of the wealth of the city, and

a portion of them at least refused to give their new ruler any kind of religious ‎allegiance. Muhammad, after a long quarrel, appropriated much of their property, and ‎destroyed two Jewish tribes, the Banu Nadir and the Banu Quraizah. Muhammad ‎fought the Banu Nadir

and expelled them from Meccah. According to tradition, in 627 BCE, ‎remnants of the Banu Nadir instigated the formation of a large alliance (Ahzab) of ‎tribes including the Quraysh, the Banu Quraiza and others and mounted an attack on ‎Medina with a force of about 20,000. Muhammad and his followers constructed a ‎trench around Medina as a part of its fortification, purposely making one section ‎narrower than the rest, so that the Meccan attackers would try

to cross the trench at ‎that point. This formed a convenient trap which resulted in the death

of many ‎Meccans. Unable to cross the trench, the Meccans besieged Medina. Medina was ‎saved by a miracle reminiscent of the destruction of Senacharib before Jerusalem. ‎After 27 days of siege, according to tradition, God sent a piercing blast of the cold ‎east wind. The enemy’s tents were torn up, their fires were put out, the sand and rain ‎beat in their faces. Terrified by the portents, they broke camp and lifted the siege. ‎

628 CE Treaty of Hudaybieh -, Muhammad and his followers set out on a pilgrimage to Mecca, and met the ‎Quraysh tribe at Hudaybiyeh, where the Quraysh had assembled to

block the ‎pilgrimage. Instead of fighting, the enemies concluded a treaty and the Muslims ‎agreed not to make the pilgrimage that year. Instead, they turned on the Jews of the ‎town of Khaybar, who were now no longer protected by the Quraysh, and attacked ‎and subjugated

the city.

Jews of MEDINA refuse to accept Mohammed as Prophet. After consolidating his hold on Medina, Mohammed chased the Jews from their farms and divorced his developing system from both Judaism and Christianity. He ordered the faithful henceforth to pray facing Mecca, not Jerusalem as had been the case up to then. In 628 Mohammed obtained a truce with Mecca allowing his followers to make the pilgrimage to the Kaaba. Mecca became the religious capital of Islam and Medina remained the political capital

.

630 BCE Mohammed attacked Mecca, conquered it, and smashed the 360 idols in the Kaaba. He declared the territory surrounding the shrine to be haram forbidden - to all non-Muslims. Even today, no Atheist or Christian could visit the taboo area and escape with his life. Indeed, the entire region of Saudi Arabia in which the holy cities of Mecca and Medina are located (the Hijaz)

is considered by Wahabi Muslims such as Osama bin Laden to be haram and out-of-bounds for American military infidels.

Muhammad and followers left Mecca for Yathrib, an agricultural settlement some 250

miles north of Mecca, where nomad turned settlers (many Jewish now) feuded.

Yathrib would become known as Medina (al-Medinah, the city) “city of the Prophet”

because it became the pattern of a perfect Muslim society. Mohammad’s first act was to build a simple mosque (Ar. masjid: literally, place of prostration). It was a rough building that expressed the austerity of early Islamic ideal. Tree trunks supported the roof, a stone marked the direction of prayer ... and the Prophet stood on a tree trunk to preach.

630 CE- Muhammad returns in triumph to Mecca, destroys idols in Kaaba.

Spends next two years to unite Arabs under Islam.

644-656 Uthman Ibn Affan(who was married to one of mohameds daughters was elected

3rd calif by six of Prophet’s companions. Weaker than his predecessor governed well and won the Muslim more territories all the way to Tripoli Libya. He gave prestigious post to family members . In 656 a mutiny and discontent Arab soldiers broke into Uthmans house in Medina and assassinated him

656 - 661 MOSLEM CIVIL WAR (Medina)

953 MU'IZZ (Sicily)

The Fatimite conqueror of Sicily, appointed Paltiel as his Vizier and physician. Paltiel was in charge of provisioning the army during Mu'izz's conquest of Egypt. Paltiel was a generous man and shared his wealth with many Jewish communities. His son Samuel brought his body to Jerusalem for burial.

882 - 942 (26 Iyar 4702) SA'ADIA (Sa'adia Gaon) BEN JOSEPH (Babylon)

Born in Egypt, he moved to Babylon in 928 to head the academy at Sura. He revived the waning influence of the academy and wrote on many subjects, including grammar, halacha and philosophy. As one of the foremost opponents of Karaism, he wrote the exposition Emunot Vedeot, which became very popular. A grave conflict arose between Sa'adia and the Exilarch David ben Zaccai when he refused to endorse a judgment of the Exilarch's court in which Ben Zaccai was an interested party. The issue was not settled for many years and demonstrated Sa'adia's unyielding defense of his principles. He was subsequently expelled and moved to Baghdad. On Purim 937, the opponents were reconciled, and a few years later Sa'adia adopted Ben Zaccai's orphan grandchildren.

a tool for introspection and self-evaluation.

900 — Jewish slave merchants lose trade to Italian Christians. During this century, Jews from N. France and N. Italy, speaking a language called Laaz, begin speaking earliest Yiddish, as a result of contact with German speakers

920 — R. Moses of Lucca, of N. Italy and son Kalonymus, move to Mainz–becoming forefathers of German Jewish culture. Kalonymus’ Responsa c. 940, are the oldest native products of Ashkenazi Jewry.

948 MENAHEM BEN SARUQ (Spain)

Wrote Machberet, a biblical dictionary in Hebrew. He was attacked by Dunash b. Labrat, who maintained that some of his definitions were mistaken and would lead to wrong interpretations of the biblical text

953 MU'IZZ (Sicily)

The Fatimite conqueror of Sicily, appointed Paltiel as his Vizier and physician. Paltiel was in charge of provisioning the army during Mu'izz's conquest of Egypt. Paltiel was a generous man and shared his wealth with many Jewish communities. His son Samuel brought his body to Jerusalem for burial.

Broke out between the followers of Uthman, the third Caliph (ruler) and the followers of Ali, the fourth Caliph, who was the son-in-law of Mohammed. The war began when Ali murdered Uthman and proclaimed himself leader of the Moslems.

http://www.hsje.org/facts%20of%20history.htm

985 DEATH OF JACOB IBN JAU (Spain)

Introducer of brocaded silk into Spain. He was made prince of the Jews by a grateful Al Mansur in Andalusia. He later refused to extort money from his fellow Jews and was temporarily imprisoned and then stripped of his rank.

990 - 1053 HANANEL BEN HUSHIEL (Tunisia)

One of the last Geonim. He was actually born in Kairouan and remained there most of his life. He wrote the first complete commentary on the Talmud which is today embedded in the actual Talmud page. Hananel was also one of the first to rationalize the miracles of Agadah (Biblical legends). This is the part of the Oral Law which deals with stories, chronicles and sayings rather than laws. His writings and responsa served as a bridge between the Babylonian academies and North African Jewry.

1008 CALIPH HAKIM (Egypt)

The sixth Fatimid caliph began his rule. He pressured all non-Moslems, especially Christians, to convert. He is said to have forced Jews to wear a small "golden calf" around their necks. Al-Hakim proclaimed himself God's incarnation, disappeared, and was probably killed during a revolt. His confessor Darazi fled to the Syrian mountains where he proclaimed a new religion - the Druse (Druze). According to the Druze religion there have been ten incarnations of God with Al-Hakim being the last - and they await his second coming.

1040 BACHYA IBN PAKUDA (Saragossa, Spain)

Published the first book on Jewish morals and ethics, entitled Chovot Halevavot (Duties of the Heart). In the 19th century his work, among others, became an integral part of the talmudic academy (yeshiva) curriculum. It was considered a tool for introspection and self-evaluation.

1054 AHIMAAZ BEN PALTIEL (Capua, Italy)

Completed a 200 year chronicle of his family in southern Italy. This work called

Migilat Yuchasin (The Scroll of Genealogy) is better known as Migilat Achimaz (The Chronicle of Ahimaaz). The entire chronicle was written in rhymed Hebrew prose with an extensive vocabulary. This work presents a remarkable window into Jewish life at that time. The Chronicle was found by accident in a Spanish library and published in 1895.

1056 - 1147 ALMORAVIDE DYNASTY (Spain)

A Berber Moslem tribe, they were called to Spain by Abbad III of Seville to help fight against the Christians. They soon turned against the Spanish Moors and annexed Moslem Spain, with the exception of Toledo and Saragossa. The Almoravides were unstable at best. Their rule was generally puritanical, and they showed disdain for the Moslem courts in Spain. Many Jews fled to Christian Spain.

1060 - 1136 ABRAHAM BAR HIYYA (Spain)

Spanish philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. Although he wrote in Hebrew (rather than in the common Arabic) many of his scientific books were translated into Latin, including his Hibbur ha-meshicha V'HaTishboret, which gave the area of a circle and helped introduce trigonometry to the west. His book on astronomy, Hokhmat Ha'Hizayon, is a definitive work on astronomy and the calculation of the calendar.

1066 December 30, GRANADA (Spain)

Joseph ibn Nagrela, son of Samuel ibn Nagrela, was murdered. He had served as vizier to Badis, ruler of the Berbers. There had been constant tension between the Berbers and the Arab population which led to a civil war. Joseph attempted to ease the conflict between the two camps and prevent excesses against the local Arabs. His enemies included Abu Ishak, Berber advisor to the prince, who accused him of trying to cede the city to a neighboring prince. Badis ordered Joseph killed and crucified. In the ensuing massacre of the Jewish population 1,500 families were killed, including Joseph's wife and son. A few years later Jews were readmitted to Granada and resumed high offices.

1070 - 1139 MOSES IBN EZRA (Granada, Spain)

Poet and philosopher known for his profound spirituality and rich expressiveness. Ibn Ezra also wrote a history of Spanish Jewry where he claimed a Jewish presence in the Iberian Peninsula from the time of the second Temple.

1085 TOLEDO (Spain)

Surrendered to Alfonso VI of Castile in Northern Spain, becoming part of Christian Spain. This was the first important conquest of Moslem Spain known as the Reconquista. His chief counselor was Joseph ben Ferrusel, also known as Cidellus (Little Cid). As his physician and advisor, Joseph was instrumental in helping protect those refugees fleeing Almoravide persecutions.

1089 - 1164 (1 Adar 4924) ABRAHAM IBN EZRA (Cordova, Spain)

Poet, mathematician and prolific Biblical commentator. He signaled the end of the classical period in Jewish secular poetry. His commentary on the Pentateuch is based on grammar and philosophical interpretations which strive to give a simple explanation rather then exegesis or homiletic interpretation and is considered the first scientific interpreter of the Bible. An unsuccessful businessman, he wrote of himself: "If I were to take up shroud making, men would stop dying - if I sold candles, the sun would never set."

1090 GRANADA (Spain)

Was captured by Iban Iashufin, King of the Almoravides. The Jewish community, believed to have sided with the Christians, was destroyed. Many fled, penniless, for Christian Toledo.

1095 MOSHE IBN EZRA (Spain)

Was forced by Almohad intolerance to leave Granada. The great poet wandered for 4 decades, mourning the great past of Granada.

1107 MOROCCO

Yoseph ibn Tashifin, the Almoravide ruler, ordered all Jews to convert or leave Morocco. He based this on limiting Mohammed's "tolerance" of the Jews to 500 years after the Hejira.

1110 - 1180 ABRAHAM BEN DAVID 'IBN DAUD' (Rabad I) (Spain)

Noted philosopher, physician and historian. He believed in defending Judaism, especially against Karaite thinking, by using reason and rationality and not just faith. Ibn Daud's most well known book is the Sefer HaKabbalah (Book of Tradition), in which he puts forth a historical and philosophical defense of Judaism. He traces the passing of Judaic law and the Torah though the Talmud, beginning with the foundation of Judaism and delving into Spanish Jewish history in great detail. Much of our knowledge of this period is due to his work. He is the source of the medieval story of the "Four Rabbis" (see 945) (R. Moses b. Hanokh, R. Shemariah, R. Hushi'el and one whose name isn't known) who were captured by a Moslem captain and sold into slavery in Spain, Cairo, and Kairouan. When ransomed, they created new centers for the study of Torah in Alexandria, Tunisia and Cordova.

1129 ABRAHAM BAR HIYYA (d.1136) (Spain)

Philosopher, mathematician and astronomer. Published Meggilat HaMegaleh (Scroll of the Revealer) in which he predicted the fall of Christianity and the coming redemption in 1358. He held a senior position in the court in Barcelona, probably as the chief of police.

1130 - 1269 ALMOHAD (ara. al-Muwahhidun) DYNASTIES (Spain)

A Berber Muslim dynasty which destroyed most of what was left of the Almoravide dynasty by 1147. By 1150 the conquering armies were already in Spain, Algeria and Tunis. Their intolerance led to many Jews fleeing the areas under their control - including the family of Maimonides.

1135 - 1204 (20 Tevet 4965) MOSES BEN MAIMON (Maimonides) (Cordova, Spain)

Fled from Spain at the age of thirteen after the capture of Cordova by the Al Mohadan fanatics. He became court physician to Saladin of Egypt. He is famed for his "radical" philosophical work on the unity of reason and faith, Guide for the Perplexed, which was heavily criticized in the Jewish world (especially by Franco-German rabbis). Most of the debate, led by Meir ben Todros Abulafia, concerned rational philosophy and its place within faith and belief in God. The anti-Maimonides school, led by Solomon Montpellier and Jonah Gerunda, insisted that all miracles and aggadic interpretations must be taken literally and that any explanation was heresy. They were also concerned that it would be easier to persuade people to give up beliefs based on rational arguments. Maimonides' greatest work was his Mishna Torah, a guide in fourteen sections to Jewish traditions and practices, which was based on the entire Talmud (both the Babylonian and Jerusalem versions). It is written in the purest Hebrew and is referred to simply as the Rambam (his acronym). He was a prodigious correspondent, answering questions from all over the world. His letter to Yemen, Igeret Teiman, written in Arabic, comforted the community during difficult times. In the letter he discussed the relations with Christianity and Islam and encouraged the Jews, from a historical perspective, to be strong.

1141 ALFONSO VII (Castile, Spain)

In order to encourage a Christian merchant class, he allowed Christians to retain hereditary ownership of their shops. Jews and Moslems were only allowed to be tenants.

1154 - 1172 TRAVELS OF BENJAMIN OF TUDELA (Spain)

Jewish traveler and historian. His book Sefer Hamasot (Book of Travel) recounted his travels throughout the Mediterranean, the Middle East, India, Ceylon and China. He gave details about each Jewish community: its size, scholars, and economic conditions. Almost everything we know about the Jewish communities of his day came from his book.

1162 GRANADA (Spain)

Jews and Christians joined to overthrow the Almohad regime. The Almohads only permitted converts to Islam to live in the city. Unfortunately the rebellion was not successful.

1171 SALADIN

Conquered Egypt and began the Ayyubid dynasty which lasted until 1250. Although once again non-Moslems were discriminated against, Jewish intellectual life flourished with more than 7000 Jewish families, among them Maimonides.

1180 January 9, PHILIP AUGUSTUS (France)

(The new king of France) arrested large numbers of Jews while his father, Louis VII, who tried to protect the Jews (though not always successfully) was still alive. All the Jews found in synagogues on the Sabbath were arrested. Philip agreed to free them for 15,000 silver marks.

1181 ENGLAND King Henry II enacted the "Assize of Arms", ordering that all weapons in possession of Jews be confiscated on the grounds that Jews, who were supposedly protected by the King, would not have any reason for owning arms. The weapons were turned over to the King's forces. A direct result of this was that there was little they could do to protect themselves when riots broke out less then ten years later.

1240 - 1292 ABRAHAM ABULAFIA (Spain)

One of the first kabbalists. He was opposed by Solomon Aderet who felt that he was almost posing as a messianic pretender. Abulafia analyzed the Hebrew alphabet and the letters in God's name, calling it chochmat ha zeruf (science of letter analyzation). As a young man he traveled, searching for the legendary Sambation River.

1248 ALFONSO OF CASTILE (Spain)

Showed his appreciation for Jewish soldiers' part in the conquering of Seville. Although he was just the crown prince, he granted them land for a "village of the Jews". The Jewish quarter was enlarged and three mosques were given to them for use as synagogues. A large number of Jews served him in the treasury (Meir de Maleq), in astronomy (Judah ben Moses Cohen), and medicine (Abraham and Samuel Levi). A famous Astronomical Table (Alphonsine Tables) was named for him by Isaac ibn Sid, the cantor in Toledo. In spite of this, Alfonso also compiled the "seven sets", a legal work reviewing all the anti-Jewish canons against the Jews. A hundred years later this was used as the basis for anti-Jewish legislation.

1265 NACHMANIDES (Spain)

Was convicted for publishing his side of the debate with Pablo Christiani. Although Nachmanides was not severely punished by the King, he decided to leave Spain for good and settled in Eretz Israel.

1288 -Naples issues first expulsion of Jews in S.Italy

1288 -1293 Kingdom of Naples, first the expulsion, later the destruction of the Ashkenazi community, followed by conversions of Jews

1300

1310 - C. 1375 NISSIM BEN REUBEN GERONDI (Rabbenu Nissim - the Ran) (Spain)

Talmudist, scholar and physician. He was recognized as one of the most authoritative halachic interpreters of his generation. His halachic commentary on Alfasi is considered a standard text. His commentary on Tractate Nedarim is printed together with the Talmud and is used instead of Rashi which is not extant for that section of the Talmud. The exact date of his death is unknown. It is presumed he died while being held captive in prison

1328 March 5, NAVARRE (France)

After the death of Charles the Fair, Philip's brother and successor, Pedro Olligoyen, a Franciscan friar, used the Jews as a scapegoat against French rule. All Jewish houses were pillaged then destroyed. Approximately 6000 Jews were murdered. There were 20 survivors.

1336 February 25, ALFONSO X OF CASTILE (Spain)

Was persuaded by the apostate Alfonso of Valladolid to ban the prayer Alenu, composed by the Amora Abba Arucha (the Tall, or as he was later called, Rav, c. 247, founder of the academy of Sura). Alfonso alleged that Alenu was anti-Christian. As a result, many Jewish communities excised the sentence from the prayer They bend knee to emptiness and pray to a god who will not answer, which has only been printed again in recent years in some prayer books.

1348 June, NORTHERN SPAIN

Black Plague massacres began in Barcelona and Cervera.

. 1349 January 16, BASEL

The Guilds brought up charges against the Jews accusing them of poisoning the wells. Despite an attempted defence by the town council, 600 Jews together with the Rabbi were burned to death. One hundred and forty children were taken from their parents and forcible baptized ending a Jewish presence in the town. Jewishhistory.org.il

1355 C.E. May 7, TOLEDO (Spain)

Henry de Trastamasa, step-brother of Peter the Cruel, invaded Toledo on the pretense of rescuing the Queen Blance from Peter. 1,200 Jews were killed. Bitter fighting within the Jewish quarter repelled the attack. As a reward for the courage of the Jews and loyalty of his advisor, Samuel ben Meir Halevi (Abulafia), Pedro allowed him to construct a beautiful synagogue (1357) which was later converted into a church under the name of El Tránsito. A few years later despite his service, Abulafia lost favor with the king and he was painfully murdered. (see 1360).

1360 C.E. SAMUEL BEN MEIR ABULAFIA (Spain)

The Spanish financier, diplomat and Jewish leader was arrested by King Pedro without any reason being given. He was tortured to death and all his great wealth was confiscated by the king. His house still stands today as the El Greco museum.

1376 C.E. ABRAHAM CRESQUES (Majorca)

The famous Majorcan cartographer to Pedro IV of Aragon. He sent a map of the world as a gift to Charles VI of France. He is also credited from creating the famous Catalan atlas. Many of the maps of this era - which were known as Portolanos - charted coastlines and oceans (mostly of the Mediterranean

area). Many Jews from the island of Majorca - as well as from Alexandria - have their names signed to these early maps

1410 C.E. MEIR ALGUADES (Spain)

The chief rabbi and former physician to King Henry III (Castile) was accused by Paul de Santa Maria of desecrating the host. He was tortured until he "confessed". Then he was killed and the synagogue was converted into a church.

1410 C.E. MEIR ALGUADES (Spain)

The chief rabbi and former physician to King Henry III (Castile) was accused by Paul de Santa Maria of desecrating the host. He was tortured until he "confessed". Then he was killed and the synagogue was converted into a church

1413 C.E. February 7, TORTOSA DISPUTATION (Aragon, Spain)

Ferrer returned, assisted by an apostate Joshua Lorki (Geronimo de Santa Fe), known to the Jews as Hamegadef (the blasphemer). He convinced Pope Benedict XIII to stage a disputation at Tortosa. It was presided over by the Pope himself and lasted for a period of twenty-one months in sixty-nine sessions. The Jews, led by Vidal Benvenisti and Joseph Albo, were faced with an opening salvo by Benedict in which he made the expected outcome clear. Hamegadef attacked the Talmud as anti-Christian and urged its banning. None of the Jews' counter-arguments were officially recorded.

1435 C.E. MAJORCA

Three years after a blood libel the community was forced to either leave or convert. The 200 who were converted became known as chuetas (the word for pork). Legal discrimination against them existed until 1782.

1449 C.E. January 27, TOLEDO ANTI-CONVERSO RIOTS (Spain)

New Christians (Conversos) were attacked during a revolt against taxation. Three hundred of them decided to band together and defend themselves. During the attack one Christian was killed. In response, 22 Marranos were murdered and numerous houses burned.

1449 C.E. June 5, TOLEDO (Spain)

The town council decided not to allow New Christians to hold any public office. Pope Nicholas V condemned the decision, claiming that all Catholics "constitute one body".

1452 - 1515 C.E. ABRAHAM ZACUTO (Spain-Portugal-Tunisia)

Astronomer and historian. Around 1474 he wrote his "Great Treatise" HaHibur HaGadol under the patronage of the bishop of Salamanca which was translated into Spanish. His astronomical tables were used by Columbus. After the expulsion of 1492, he went to Portugal where he developed the copper Astrolabe used by Vasco Da Gama. In 1497 he was forced to flee or convert. He left and reached Tunis, where he wrote a history of the Jews from the creation until 1500.

1453 - 1821 C.E. GREECE

Under Turkish (Ottoman) rule. Jews arrived from Spain, Portugal, and even Poland. For the most part they were free to engage in trade and crafts. Their economic situation varied greatly, depending on the area. In Salonika the Jews controlled much of the trade, to such a degree that the port was closed on the Sabbath and Jewish holidays.

146?-1546) Change word Barbarossa ( was a Barbary corsair (sea raider). Also called Khair-ed-Din, he was the younger of two red-bearded brothers who scourged the western Mediterranean in the 1500's. Khair-ed-Din succeeded his brother Arouj as commander of organized fleets of ships. He became high admiral of the Turkish navy, and devoted his life to ferocious and vengeful attacks on Christian ships and towns.

He also captured Tunis and Algiers. He plundered the shores of Italy, France, and Spain, and enslaved thousands of Christians. He twice defeated the great Genoese admiral, Andrea Doria. The Turkish naval supremacy that he helped build up was not destroyed until the Christians defeated the Turks at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.

Contributor: Robert C. Ritchie, Ph.D., Director of Research, The Huntington Library, Art Gallery, and Botanical Gardens.

1469 C.E. TOMAS DE TORQUEMADA C. 1420-1498 (Spain)

A Dominican, he became Queen Isabella's confessor. He exerted tremendous influence - especially over the queen - and was instrumental in persuading the king and queen to expel the Jews in 1492. Torquemada - together with Cardinal Mendoza - convinced the pope to establish the Spanish Inquisition. He was appointed Inquisitor General in 1483.

1493 C.E. January 31, GENOA (Italy)

During the previous year, Jews fleeing Spain were allowed to land for three days. As of this date this special consideration was cancelled due to the "fear" that the Jews might introduce the Plague (Black Death) into Genoa.

1475 C.E. July 3, MESHULLAM CUSI (Italy)

Established the first Hebrew press in Italy at Piove di Sacco near Padua and printed Jacob b. Asher's Arbah Turim. The same year he also printed a Slichot (prayers for the Days of Repentance).

1492 C.E. January 2, GRENADA (Spain)

The last Moorish stronghold was overrun, adding even more Jews to Catholic Spain. Under the terms of surrender, the Jewish inhabitants were promised protection by the King and Queen. Within a few months the razing of the Jewish quarter was ordered by Ferdinand.

1496 C.E. December 5, (23 Tevet 5257) MANUEL OF PORTUGAL

During the first year of his reign he befriended the Jews, but his desire to unite the Iberian Peninsula through marriage to the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella changed all that. Four years after the expulsion of Jews from Spain, he ordered them expelled from Portugal within 11 months (October 31, 1497). As his real desire was not to see the Jews leave, he only opened one port, which first forced most of them to remain behind after the designated date, and then forced them to be baptized.

1413 C.E. February 7, TORTOSA DISPUTATION (Aragon, Spain)

Ferrer returned, assisted by an apostate Joshua Lorki (Geronimo de Santa Fe), known to the Jews as Hamegadef (the blasphemer). He convinced Pope Benedict XIII to stage a disputation at Tortosa. It was presided over by the Pope himself and lasted for a period of twenty-one months in sixty-nine sessions. The Jews, led by Vidal Benvenisti and Joseph Albo, were faced with an opening salvo by Benedict in which he made the expected outcome clear. Hamegadef attacked the Talmud as anti-Christian and urged its banning. None of the Jews' counter-arguments were officially recorded.

1435 C.E. MAJORCA

Three years after a blood libel the community was forced to either leave or convert. The 200 who were converted became known as chuetas (the word for pork). Legal discrimination against them existed until 1782.

1449 C.E. January 27, TOLEDO ANTI-CONVERSO RIOTS (Spain)

New Christians (Conversos) were attacked during a revolt against taxation. Three hundred of them decided to band together and defend themselves. During the attack one Christian was killed. In response, 22 Marranos were murdered and numerous houses burned.

1449 C.E. June 5, TOLEDO (Spain)

The town council decided not to allow New Christians to hold any public office. Pope Nicholas V condemned the decision, claiming that all Catholics "constitute one body".

1452 - 1515 C.E. ABRAHAM ZACUTO (Spain-Portugal-Tunisia)

Astronomer and historian. Around 1474 he wrote his "Great Treatise" HaHibur HaGadol under the patronage of the bishop of Salamanca which was translated into Spanish. His astronomical tables were used by Columbus. After the expulsion of 1492, he went to Portugal where he developed the copper Astrolabe used by Vasco Da Gama. In 1497 he was forced to flee or convert. He left and reached Tunis, where he wrote a history of the Jews from the creation until 1500.

1453 - 1821 C.E. GREECE

Under Turkish (Ottoman) rule. Jews arrived from Spain, Portugal, and even Poland. For the most part they were free to engage in trade and crafts. Their economic situation varied greatly, depending on the area. In Salonika the Jews controlled much of the trade, to such a degree that the port was closed on the Sabbath and Jewish holidays.

1469 C.E. TOMAS DE TORQUEMADA C. 1420-1498 (Spain)

A Dominican, he became Queen Isabella's confessor. He exerted tremendous influence - especially over the queen - and was instrumental in persuading the king and queen to expel the Jews in 1492. Torquemada - together with Cardinal Mendoza - convinced the pope to establish the Spanish Inquisition. He was appointed Inquisitor General in 1483.

1493 C.E. January 31, GENOA (Italy)

During the previous year, Jews fleeing Spain were allowed to land for three days. As of this date this special consideration was cancelled due to the "fear" that the Jews might introduce the Plague (Black Death) into Genoa.

1475 C.E. July 3, MESHULLAM CUSI (Italy)

Established the first Hebrew press in Italy at Piove di Sacco near Padua and printed Jacob b. Asher's Arbah Turim. The same year he also printed a Slichot (prayers for the Days of Repentance).

1492 C.E. January 2, GRENADA (Spain)

The last Moorish stronghold was overrun, adding even more Jews to Catholic Spain. Under the terms of surrender, the Jewish inhabitants were promised protection by the King and Queen. Within a few months the razing of the Jewish quarter was ordered by Ferdinand.

1496 C.E. December 5, (23 Tevet 5257) MANUEL OF PORTUGAL

During the first year of his reign he befriended the Jews, but his desire to unite the Iberian Peninsula through marriage to the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella changed all that. Four years after the expulsion of Jews from Spain, he ordered them expelled from Portugal within 11 months (October 31, 1497). As his real desire was not to see the Jews leave, he only opened one port, which first forced most of them to remain behind after the designated date, and then forced them to be baptized.

146?-1546) Change word Barbarossa ( was a Barbary corsair (sea raider). Also called Khair-ed-Din, he was the younger of two red-bearded brothers who scourged the western Mediterranean in the 1500's. Khair-ed-Din succeeded his brother Arouj as commander of organized fleets of ships. He became high admiral of the Turkish navy, and devoted his life to ferocious and vengeful attacks on Christian ships and towns.

He also captured Tunis and Algiers. He plundered the shores of Italy, France, and Spain, and enslaved thousands of Christians. He twice defeated the great Genoese admiral, Andrea Doria. The Turkish naval supremacy that he helped build up was not destroyed until the Christians defeated the Turks at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.

Contributor: Robert C. Ritchie, Ph.D., Director of Research, The Huntington Library, Art Gallery, and Botanical Gardens.

1500

1500 - 1568 C.E. GARCIA DE ORTA (Portugal-India)

Marrano scientist and physician. He is known as "the first European writer on tropical medicine and a pioneer in pharmacology." In 1580, more then ten years after his death, he was condemned by the Inquisition and his remains were thrown into the sea.

1510 LADINO Turkey

The first known printing of a book in Ladino. Ladino is a Judeo-Spanish dialect which spread to the Levant as well as the Ottoman Empire after the expulsion from Spain in 1492. Ladino is printed in Hebrew script similar to Yiddish. The first translation of the bible was a book on Psalms in 1540 published in Constantinople.

1510 C.E. ABRAHAM BEN ELIEZER HALEVI (Spain-Jerusalem)

An apocalyptic Kabbalist (c. 1460-1532) wrote letters proclaiming the year 1524 as the beginning of the arrival of the Messiah. Halevi, who was originally from Spain, spent many years wandering after the expulsion until he settled in Jerusalem in 1514. There Halevi, who was widely respected for his scholarly knowledge, urged people to repent and make themselves ready for the redemption. Among his many treatises on Kabbalah are Mashreh Kitrin (Untyer of Knots) Maamar Perek Chelek on talmudic sources for redemption and a commentary on Nevuat Hayeled (A Child's Prophesy). Halevi's letters unfortunately paved the way for the acceptance of messianic pretenders such as Molcho and Shabbetai Zevi.

1510 C.E. November 23, NAPLES (Italy)

The Jews were expelled. Fifteen years earlier the Spanish had conquered the island and within a year had issued an order for the banishment of all Jews, which was never carried out. Now the community, which had existed since Roman times, was forced out. The only Jews remaining were the "New Christians" (who were to be expelled 5 years later) and 200 wealthy families, who paid a new annual tax for such tolerance.

1511 June 6, SICILY The first Auto da Fe was held. Eight former Spanish converts were accused of practicing Judaism and were executed.

1514 - 1578 C.E. AZARIAH DE ROSSI (Ferrara, Italy)

Scholar and author of Me'or Enayyim (Light of the Eyes), a book on Jewish history (see 1575). A descendant of one of the first Jewish families in Italy (Min Ha'Adumim), he introduced the scientific method of comparing sources to Jewish study. De Rossi earned the ire of many when he proved that Jossiphon was actually written in the medieval times and was not reliable as a historical work.

1522 - 1570 C.E.(22 Tamuz 5330) MOSES CORDOVERO (Ramak) (Safed, Eretz Israel)

Rabbi, philosopher and early Kabbalist. Cordovero was a student of Joseph Caro and a teacher of Isaac Luria. His classic Pardes Rimonim (Orchard of pomegranates) which he completed when he was just 27, developed for the first time a Kabalistic system. Among his other works are Elimah Rabati, also on kabalistic systems, Tefilah L'Moshe on Prayers, and Tomer Devorah (Date palm of Deborah) which developed Kabalistic ethical literature.

1523 C.E. MEXICO

Only allowed immigration to those who could prove four generations of Catholic ancestry. In spite of this, many Marranos succeed in purchasing "Purity of Blood" (limpieza de sangre) certificate

1524 DAVID REUVENI (Italy-Portugal)

Arrived in Rome claiming to be a representative of the Ten Lost Tribes and requesting assistance from Clement VII to fight the Turks. Though he was burned at an Auto da Fe in Portugal in 1552, his effect on his fellow Jews was to raise their self-esteem, knowing that somewhere there existed a strong and independent part of Israel.

1528 C.E. MEXICO

The first Auto da Fe took place in the New World. One of its first victims was Hernando Alonso. One of Cortes' conquistadors, he was burned at the stake with another "Judaizer". An official Office of the Inquisition would only be set up in 1571.

1528 Dona Grazia Mendes marries Fransisco Benveniste Mendes, a wealthy marrano merchant, with a Catholic ceremony publicly,and a secret Jewish wedding

1532 — Jacob Azulai, Padua,Italy is the first known Jewish artist to make a majolica Seder Plate. Later displayed in Jewish Museum in Vienna

1532 MOLCHO AND REUVENI

Were arrested by Charles V. Molcho was accused of being a Church renegade and burned at the stake in the first Auto da Fe held in Evora, Portugal on November 7 of that same year. Reuveni was sent to Spain where he was also probably burned at the stake, probably at Badajoz Spain in 1538.

1536 Portugal starts its Inquisition , many escapes into Amsterdam, and some parts of Italy, while many take baptism, but professing Jews in secret.

1536 MARRANOS AND JEWS (Holland)

Were granted the right to live in the Netherlands by Charles V.

1540 September 20, LISBON (Portugal)

The first Auto da Fe of those forcibly converted to Christianity (Conversos) was held. The Auto da Fe was to play a macabre part of Portuguese life for the next 250 years.

1543 GOA (India)

Jeronimo Diaz,

1551 R. Shimon Ibn Lavi was born in Spain, from where he was exiled as a child, to the city of Fez in Morocco. He left Fez in the year 1549, on his way to the land of Israel. He was captured by Arab bandits and after being ransomed arrived in Tripoli, in the year 1551. In view of the deteriorated religious condition of the Jewish inhabitants (probably Marranos that lived in the city during the period of Christian rule) he decided to stay in Tripoli. One of the sources informs us that Ibn Lavi served as the Turkish governor’s doctor. R. Simeon Ibn Lavi died in Tripoli in the year 1585 and the local Jewish community has venerated his grave throughout the years. He wrote Ketem Paz

1553 September 9, (1 Tishrei 5314 Rosh Hashanah) THE TALMUD (Rome, Italy)

Was confiscated and publicly burned in Rome. This burning was held under the auspices of Cardinal Caraffa, later to be Pope Paul IV, with the backing of Pope Julius III. Caraffa, a rabid counter-Reformationist, chose this day specifically so the Jews would feel the grief more strongly. Talmud burning spread through much of Italy.

1556 March, ANCONA (Italy)

Under orders of Paul IV, privileges granted to Jews were revoked. Former Marranos were forced back into Christianity. 23 men and woman were burned for refusing. The Sultan Suleiman complained (March 9th) that his Turkish Jewish subjects had been imprisoned, and that because of this he had lost a substantial amount of money. He demanded that all Turkish Marranos be set free.

1555 April, - June, ANCONA (Italy)

As part of his Counter-Reformation, Pope Paul IV supported the arrest of 51 Marranos. Twenty-five were burned. Donna Gracia Mendes Nasi tried to organize a boycott of the port of Ancona by Jewish merchants throughout the Ottoman empire but was opposed by some merchants and many rabbis who feared that the Pope would retaliate.

1560 GOA

Portugal, which ruled Goa, established an inquisition which was to last (with one four year break) for almost 250 years.

1564 March 22, MANTUA, (Italy)

David Provensalo and his son Abraham asked the Jewish notables to help create a Jewish College. The idea was to allow Jews to learn languages and science and receive a "Jewish education." Although they did establish a talmudic academy, they were opposed by the local Church and did not succeed in opening the College.

1567 June 15, GENOA (Italy)

Expulsion of the Jews. The two prior expulsions of 1515 and 1550 were local. This decree was extended to the entire republic. Within a few years a limited number of Jews, specifically those engaged in money lending and business, were again allowed to live there.

1571 October 18, MEXICO

An Inquisition was set up that remained in force until the end of the eighteenth century. During that period, 1,500 persons were convicted of being judaizantes (someone who practices Judaism). Approximately 200 were either burned at the stake or died before being convicted. A similar number were sentenced to jail terms.

1573-1581 Rome the Cinque Scole Synagogue is erected in the ghetto of Rome. When the ghetto was established in 1555, the Jews were permitted only one synagogue, though there were five prayer communities with ethnic, linguistic and social differences. Later, Pope Pius V agreed to have one building house the five synagogues, which satisfied the literal restrictions, but permitted the Jews to establish Castilian, Catalan, Temple and New Congregations. The current chief Rabbi of Rome and uncle to the Philadelphia Toaf family, Rabbi Toaf, is a direct descendant of the first rabbi of the Scole Castiliano, Rabbi Yitzchak Toaf, The building was demolished in 1910.

1574 February 28, MEXICO

The first official Auto da Fe in the New World was held after the establishment of the Inquisition 5 years earlier. The first unofficial Auto da Fe was actually held in 1528 when the conquistador, Hernando Alonso, was executed.

1575 January 8, AUTO DA FE AT SEVILLE (Spain)

Many Marranos were among the victims of this Auto da Fe.

1575 AZARIAH DE ROSSI (Italy)

Published his Me'or Einayim (Enlightenment to the Eyes). Written after surviving a strong earthquake in Ferrara, it was the first Jewish historical work to base itself on secular as well as Jewish sources, quoting over 100 secular authorities. De Rossi examined talmudic legends with a critical eye and believed that they were not written necessarily as an absolute historical truth. He delved deeply into the chronology of events, comparing Jewish and secular sources. Needless to say his book was controversial. It was severely criticized by Joseph Caro and Judah Loew b. Bezalel of Prague, among others, who believed in the unqualified truth of the talmudic legends. This led to a banning of the book which lasted more then 100 years.

1579 - 1647 (1 Adar 5407) AZARIAH FIGO (PICHO) (Italy)

Scholar and Preacher. Figo served in the community of Venice, where he fought against the secular trend of the Italian renaissance. His Binah le-Ittim is a collection of his sermons for the holidays and fast days, which was published over 50 times. His talmudic commentary Gidulei Terumah was composed after the banning of the Talmud when it was difficult to come by copies of the Talmud.

1587 - 1643 SALAMONE DE ROSSI (Italy)

The leading Jewish composer of the late Italian Renaissance and the musical director to the Ducal court of Mantua. He was an innovator of polyphonic music and the most noted Italian-Jewish musician of his time. He had his own orchestra which was invited by Alessandro, Duke of Mirandola, as "the Jew Salamone and his company". His most famous compositions are Ha-Shirim Asher li-Shelomo, 33 pieces of traditional Hebrew texts, and other religious poems for the synagogue service

1587 Italy The rabbis of Jerusalem appeal to the Jews of Italy to finance the restoration of the Nachmanides synagogue in Jerusalem (attesting to their stature and wealth among world Jewry).

Salomone De’Rossi enters the service of the Duke of Mantua as a singer and musician. He becomes the leading Jewish composer of the late Italian Renaissance.

1596 December 8, MEXICO

Luis de Carvajal el Mozo, his mother, and three sisters were burned at the stake together with five other Crypto-Jews (Marranos) who were also accused of Judaizing.

1500 - 1568 C.E. GARCIA DE ORTA (Portugal-India)

Marrano scientist and physician. He is known as "the first European writer on tropical medicine and a pioneer in pharmacology." In 1580, more then ten years after his death, he was condemned by the Inquisition and his remains were thrown into the sea.

1510 C.E. ABRAHAM BEN ELIEZER HALEVI (Spain-Jerusalem)

An apocalyptic Kabbalist (c. 1460-1532) wrote letters proclaiming the year 1524 as the beginning of the arrival of the Messiah. Halevi, who was originally from Spain, spent many years wandering after the expulsion until he settled in Jerusalem in 1514. There Halevi, who was widely respected for his scholarly knowledge, urged people to repent and make themselves ready for the redemption. Among his many treatises on Kabbalah are Mashreh Kitrin (Untyer of Knots) Maamar Perek Chelek on talmudic sources for redemption and a commentary on Nevuat Hayeled (A Child's Prophesy). Halevi's letters unfortunately paved the way for the acceptance of messianic pretenders such as Molcho and Shabbetai Zevi.

1510 C.E. November 23, NAPLES (Italy)

The Jews were expelled. Fifteen years earlier the Spanish had conquered the island and within a year had issued an order for the banishment of all Jews, which was never carried out. Now the community, which had existed since Roman times, was forced out. The only Jews remaining were the "New Christians" (who were to be expelled 5 years later) and 200 wealthy families, who paid a new annual tax for such tolerance.

1500 - 1568 C.E. GARCIA DE ORTA (Portugal-India)

Marrano scientist and physician. He is known as "the first European writer on tropical medicine and a pioneer in pharmacology." In 1580, more then ten years after his death, he was condemned by the Inquisition and his remains were thrown into the sea.

1510 LADINO Turkey

The first known printing of a book in Ladino. Ladino is a Judeo-Spanish dialect which spread to the Levant as well as the Ottoman Empire after the expulsion from Spain in 1492. Ladino is printed in Hebrew script similar to Yiddish. The first translation of the bible was a book on Psalms in 1540 published in Constantinople.

1510 C.E. November 23, NAPLES (Italy)

The Jews were expelled. Fifteen years earlier the Spanish had conquered the island and within a year had issued an order for the banishment of all Jews, which was never carried out. Now the community, which had existed since Roman times, was forced out. The only Jews remaining were the "New Christians" (who were to be expelled 5 years later) and 200 wealthy families, who paid a new annual tax for such tolerance.

1511 June 6, SICILY The first Auto da Fe was held. Eight former Spanish converts were accused of practicing Judaism and were executed.

1514 - 1578 C.E. AZARIAH DE ROSSI (Ferrara, Italy)

Scholar and author of Me'or Enayyim (Light of the Eyes), a book on Jewish history (see 1575). A descendant of one of the first Jewish families in Italy (Min Ha'Adumim), he introduced the scientific method of comparing sources to Jewish study. De Rossi earned the ire of many when he proved that Jossiphon was actually written in the medieval times and was not reliable as a historical work.

1522 - 1570 C.E.(22 Tamuz 5330) MOSES CORDOVERO (Ramak) (Safed, Eretz Israel)

Rabbi, philosopher and early Kabbalist. Cordovero was a student of Joseph Caro and a teacher of Isaac Luria. His classic Pardes Rimonim (Orchard of pomegranates) which he completed when he was just 27, developed for the first time a Kabalistic system. Among his other works are Elimah Rabati, also on kabalistic systems, Tefilah L'Moshe on Prayers, and Tomer Devorah (Date palm of Deborah) which developed Kabalistic ethical literature

1523 C.E. MEXICO

Only allowed immigration to those who could prove four generations of Catholic ancestry. In spite of this, many Marranos succeed in purchasing "Purity of Blood" (limpieza de sangre) certificate

1528 C.E. MEXICO

The first Auto da Fe took place in the New World. One of its first victims was Hernando Alonso. One of Cortes' conquistadors, he was burned at the stake with another "Judaizer". An official Office of the Inquisition would only be set up in 1571.

1528 Dona Grazia Mendes marries Fransisco Benveniste Mendes, a wealthy marrano merchant, with a Catholic ceremony publicly,and a secret Jewish wedding

1532 — Jacob Azulai, Padua,Italy is the first known Jewish artist to make a majolica Seder Plate. Later displayed in Jewish Museum in Vienna