HISTORY

  • TITUS   and its destruction

  • 70 (9 Av 3830) JERUSALEM 

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  • Fell to Titus after 4 years of fighting. The Temple was destroyed. According to Josephus, some 1,100,000 Jews perished during the revolt and another 97,000 were taken captive.

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  • Some Slaves were ransomed by  Libyan Jews into freedom

  • Thus some Romaniot are part of our people!

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  • Politically, Idris spent the early part of his career attempting to negotiate independence for his territory, Cyrenaica. in 1922 after the Italians began waging military campaigns against the Libyan hinterland he went into exile. Egypt then served as his base in a guerrilla war against the colonial Italian authorities. In 1942 Idris returned to Libya after Britain occupied Libya. Idris then formed an official government.

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  • IDRIS 

  • was the first King of reigning from 1951 to 1969. Born Sidi Muhammad Idris al-Mahdi al-Senussi

  • the grandson of Sayyid Muhammad bin 'Ali as-Senussi, the founder of the Senussi Muslim sufi orderhttp://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Idris-I-of-Libya

  • During World War II (Look here for photographs taken with Major Winston Forman [1]), Idris supported the United Kingdom and brought the Cyrenaican nationalists to fight alongside the Allies against the Axis, which had occupied Libya. With the defeat of the German army under Erwin Rommel, he was finally able to return to his capital, Benghazi.

     On September 1, 1969, while Idris was in Turkey for medical treatment, he was deposed by the Libyan army under the leadership of Colonel Muammar al-Qaddafi in a bloodless coup. In the instant of Idris's abdication, his heir Sayyid Hasan ar-Rida al-Mahdi as-Sanussi became king, but he reigned for less than one day and was then deposed. Idris eventually went into exile in Egypt, and died in Cairo in 1983.

 

 

 

 

 

9/15/08. 4:33 PM

Libya, she who is rooted in north Africa, where there has been an indigenous Jewish presence since 300 B.C.E. when Ptolemy I placed Jews into Egypt and further west into Libya from Jerusalem.

 

In Libya, some found freedom from slavery and also persecutions between wars and peace, while sometimes living with different degrees of religious tolerance for centuries under the power of many civilizations. Thus for also speaking many languages.

46 B.C.E. Prince Numidia

 

R"bw (=Libu) Ptolemy I 323 BCE - 320 BCE some 30,000 Jewish soldiers were deported with their families to inhabit Cyrenaica by the Egyptian King, Ptolemy I Soter

 

 

 

 

 

 

The first part of Ptolemy l's reign was dominated by the wars between the various successor states to the empire of Alexander. His first object was to hold his position in Egypt securely, and secondly to increase his domain. Within a few years, he had gained control of Libya, Palestine and Cyprus. When Antigonus, ruler of Syria tried to reunite Alexander's empire, Ptolemy joined the coalition against him. In 312 BCE, allied with Seleucus, the ruler of Babylonia, he defeated Demetrius, the son of Antigonus. in the battle of Gaza.

  • In 311 BCE a peace was concluded between the combatants, but in 

  • 309 BCE war broke out again, and Ptolemy occupied Corinth and other parts of Greece, although he lost Cyprus after a sea-battle in 306 BCE. Antigonus then tried to invade Egypt but Ptolemy held the frontier against him. When the coalition was renewed against Antigonus in 302 BC, Ptolemy joined it, and when Antigonus was defeated and killed at Ipsus in 301 BC Ptolemy secured Palestine in the resulting settlement. Thereafter Ptolemy tried to stay out of land wars, but he retook Cyprus in 295 BC.

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  • Feeling the kingdom was now secure, Ptolemy abdicated in 285 BCE in favour of one of his younger sons by Queen Berenice. He devoted his retirement to writing a history of the campaigns of Alexander, which is unfortunately lost but was the principal source for the later work of Arrian. Ptolemy I died in 283 BCE at the age of 84. He left a stable and well-governed kingdom to his son.

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  • Ptolemy III in Hellenistic times sent a Libyan fleet to circumnavigate the globe from the Red Sea.

  • Berenice II, daughter of Arsinoe II and Ptolemy II, wife of Ptolemy III, sole heir to Cyrene, vast income from shipping and trade; governed in Egypt while husband was on military expeditions

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  •       PHOENICIAN   punic War

  • By the fifth century B.C. E., Carthage, the greatest of the overseas Phoenician colonies, had extended its hegemony across much of North Africa, where a distinctive civilization, known as Punic, came into being. Punic settlements on the Libyan coast included Oea (Tripoli), Labdah (later Leptis Magna), and Sabratha, in an area that came to be known collectively as Tripolis, 

  • or "Three Cities'' 

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  • Punic: It Ain't Just for Wars Anymore    

  • Culture: Libya Through the Ages Part I: Ancient Libya  

  •  http://www.bitsofnews.com/content/view/6070/ 

  • 631 B.C.E they founded the city of Cyrene. The site to which Berber guides had led them was in a fertile highland region about 20 kilometers inland from the sea at a place where, according to the Berbers, a "hole in the heavens" would provide ample rainfall for the colony 

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  • BERBER   Imazighen, meaning "free men."  Punic /Berber language

  • The Berbers call themselves the Amazigh—Proud Raiders.

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  • The religions encountered by Islam during it triumphal march through North Africa  were ANIMISM,   Judaism, and Christianity

  • ANIMISM   was the religion of the Berbers of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica who refused to convert to Christianity. They worshiped a dicinity called GURZIL who had the form of a bull and was the ancestor of other divinities, also in the form of young bulls.  He was often associated with the cult of the SUN  and the MOON in which both ASTRAL bodies were SYMBOLIZED by the HORN OF THE BULL.

  • ISLAMIC sources show that animism RESISTED  ISLAmization  until the 11 CENTURY

  •  DAHIA-AL KAHINA QUEEN KAHINA

  • She fought against the Arab incursion in North Africa where under her leadership Africans fought back fiercely and drove the Arab army northward into Tripolitania. Queen Kahina was of the Hebrew faith and she never abandoned her religion. Her opposition to the Arab incursion was purely nationalistic since she favored neither Christians nor Moslems. Her death in 705 CE by Hassen-ben-Numam ended one of the most violent attempts to save Africa for the Africans. She prevented Islam's southward spread into the Western Sudan. After her death the Arabs began to change their strategy in advancing their faith and their power in Africa. The resistance to the southward spread of Islam was so great in some areas that some of the wives of African kings committed suicide to avoid falling into the hands of the Berbers and Arabs who showed no mercy to the people who would not be converted to Islam

  • www.zulunation.com

  • http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.zulunation.com/WORLDH22.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.zulunation.com/WORLDHISTORY.html&h=180&w=240&sz=16&hl=en&start=295&tbnid=-3Vw5XQ3rnZQ0M:&tbnh=83&tbnw=110&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dlibyas%2Bold%2Bflags,idris,%26st

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  • http://www.livius.org/ct-cz/cyrenaica/cyrenaica.html

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  • Ptolemy Apion, the last Greek ruler, bequeathed Cyrenaica to Rome, which formally annexed the region in 74 B.C. and joined it to Crete as a Roman province. 

  • Existing in a different sphere from the region's politics, the cities profited from a booming economy based on grain, wine, stockbreeding, wool, and silphium, a member of the parsley family with a reputation as an aphrodisiac, contraceptive, and medicinal herb.  The resin of the silphium was used throughout the Mediterranean

  • Cyrene's beautiful climate and proximity to Pliny-approved medicinal plants led to its becoming a center of learning and flourishing culture in the Hellenistic world.  A medical school and other academies of learning attracted scholars and architects.

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  •                                                                     pirates Shore Tripoli

  •            "     From the Halls of Montezuma  ( after the capture of Chapultepec Castle in 1847 To the Shores of Tripoli.  "

  • The USA Marines Hymn.    was added when the US flag was hoisted over the city of DERNA in1805

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  • Jefferson got angrier and angrier as the 1790s wore on – in 1795 alone, the US paid more than $1 million for the return of 115 men, vast naval stores, and a frigate – and by the time he was President himself, he was ready to tell the pirates to get bent. This he did when Tripoli demanded nearly a quarter-million dollars in protection money in 1801 (and declared war on the US when TJ wouldn't pay), by dispatching a small squadron of frigates and support ships to the Mediterranean. Concerned for their own welfare, Algiers and Morocco broke off their alliances with Tripoli, and the final dissolution of the Barbary States began in earnest.

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  • Jefferson pursued the unpopular, undeclared war for four more years, but most of the action was in 1803 and 1804. While most of America's attention was focused on the manifest destiny of the Louisiana Purchase, the crew of the USS Philadelphia found themselves prisoners of the Pasha of Tripoli, and Jefferson dispatched an agent named William Eaton and a handful of Marines to Egypt in order to organize a land attack. Meanwhile, a fleet under Commodore Edward Preble compelled Morocco to withdraw from the hostilities, and another task force took its sweet time in coordinating support for Eaton's T.E. Lawrence-anticipating performance.

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  • Eaton hired about 500 men (around 400 Arabs and 100 European and American "contractors' ') to complement his 8 U.S. Marines in Cairo and set out toward the Cyrenaican seaport of Derna through the Egyptian desert. The ostensible reason for the expedition was the return to the pasha's throne in Tripoli, a guy named Hamet, who'd been run out of town by his younger, meaner brother. Hamet and Eaton held the occasionally-mutinous army together through an incredible trans-Saharan march and descended upon Derna on April 27, 1805. They were supported in this action by naval gunfire from the U.S. Navy ships Hornet and Argus, and the rousing success of their storming of the fortifications led to the first raising of the American flag over an enemy fortification on the other side of the Atlantic.

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  • An army dispatched from Tripoli (ie., Hamet's brother) approached Derna, and there was skirmishing for a couple of weeks. Eaton and Hamet (really, Eaton more than Hamet) favored fighting their way through the ragtag force and marching on Tripoli straightaway, but news arrived that a deal had been reached with the pasha regarding the release of the Philadelphia hostages – and that since U.S. interests were now met, there would be no need to support Hamet's bid for the throne. America paid $60,000 for each hostage; Eaton termed the American negotiator, Colonel Tobias Lear, a traitor; Hamet went into exile in Syracuse, his wife still a part of his brother's harem; and William Eaton returned to a hero's welcome. The King of Denmark presented him with a gold box, and Massachusetts, "desirous to perpetuate a remembrance of heroic enterprise," hooked him up with 10,000 acres of free land. Lawrence of Arabia-like to the bitter end, he never did really forgive himself for his country's screwing over of Hamet.

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Jefferson reported both the success of the Lewis and Clark expedition and the calming of hostilities with the Barbary States in his 1806 address to Congress, but America went right on paying tribute for nearly another decade before stamping out the tribute payments once and for all. In 1815, Commodores William Bainbridge and Stephen Decatur led attacks on Algiers that brought the last of the shakedown artists to heel, and though European countries continued to pay protection money into the 1830s the era of the Barbary Pirates was rapidly coming to an end.        

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  • CYRENE.

  • Was founded by Dorian Greeks, its agriculture prospered and economically grew because of the perfect climate, helping created 3 crops of silphium a plant to create spices and medicines. 

  • Cyrene was ruled by many kings, but in 331  choose to submit to Alexander the Great rather than fight and be destroyed, after his death it became part of general Ptomeny I of North Africa kingdom

  • A large part of Cyrene's population were Greek-speaking Jews invited to settle by Ptolemy 

  • During Vespasian times the  Jews revolted, when in 70 C.E. Titus his son 

  • destroyed the temple in Jerusalem,  and all Jews there were expelled or   slaughtered by the Romans

  •  

  • 96 BCE Rome took Cyrene

  • 78 BCE Cyrene became a province of Rome

  • Jewish revolt in 115 CE caused widespread destruction.

  •  

  • The city of Cyrene thrived under Roman rule until factions within the city rebelled during the Jewish revolt of 115 AD. The heavy-handed Roman General Marcus Turbo suppressed the rebellion by killing over 20,000 civilians and destroying much of the city, which never fully recovered.

  •  

  • of the Greeks, asserted in his history that two sons of Abraham had joined Heracles in his expedition in Africa and that the Greek hero had married the daughter of one of them. On the other hand, Jason of Cyrene (c. 100 BCE) wrote a history, of which 2 Maccabees is a summary, glorifying the Temple and violently attacking the Jewish Hellenizers, but his manner of writing history is...ancient Greek colony in Libya, founded c. 631 BCE by a group of emigrants from the island of Thera in the Aegean. Their leader, Battus, became the first king, founding the dynasty of the Battiads, whose members, named alternately Battus and Arcesilaus, ruled Cyrene for eight generations (until c. 440 BCE). Under their rule, the city prospered economically and expanded, establishing its port of Apollonia (Marsa Sūsah) and the towns of Barce (al-Marj) and Euhesperides, or Berenice (Banghāzī).

  •  

  • After a further influx of Greek colonists c. 570 BCE, Greek–Libyan relations broke down; the new constitution granted under Battus III failed to allay dissension among the rival domestic factions, and c. 525 Cyrene was subjected to a short-lived Persian invasion.

  •  

  • The republic that followed was politically undistinguished. Then, under the aegis of Ptolemaic Egypt (from 323 bc), Cyrene became one of the great intellectual centers of the classical world, boasting a medical school and such scholars as the geographer Eratosthenes and the philosopher Aristippus, founder of the Cyrenaics. In 96 BCE Cyrenaica came under Roman rule and in 67 BCE was united with Crete to form a senatorial province, with Cyrene as local capital. The two centuries of relative prosperity under the Romans—broken by a revolt of the Cyrenian Jews (115  BCE)—were followed by steady decline. With the Arab conquest ( 642 CE) , the city ceased to exist.

  •  

  • The site of ancient Cyrene is partly occupied by the modern village of Shaḥḥāt in al-Jabal al-Akhḍar, eight miles southwest of Marsa Sūsah. Three main areas of the city have been excavated: the fountain and sanctuary of Apollo, where the Venus of Cyrene and a colossal statue of Apollo were found; the upper city,...

  • Cyrene (Greek mythology)

  •  

  • in Greek mythology, a nymph, daughter of Hypseus (king of the Lapiths) and Chlidanope (a Naiad). One day Cyrene wrestled a lion that had attacked her father’s flocks. Apollo, who was watching, fell in love with her and carried her off from Mount Pelion, in Thessaly, to Libya. There he founded the city of Cyrene and made her its queen. The story is told by the 5th-century-bc lyric poet Pindar (Pythian Ode 9). Cyrene was the mother of Apollo of Aristaeus and Idmon the seer and by Ares of Diomedes of Thrace.Battus I (king of Cyrene)

  •  

  •     * founding of Battiad dynasty Cyrene

  •  

  •       ancient Greek colony in Libya, founded c. 631 BCE by a group of emigrants from the island of Thera in the Aegean. Their leader, Battus, became the first king, founding the dynasty of the Battiads, whose members, named alternately Battus and Arcesilaus, ruled Cyrene for eight generations (until c. 440 BCE). Under their rule, the city prospered economically and expanded,...

  •     * Greek colonization of North Africa North Africa

  •  

  •       ...to Cyrene being founded (c. 630) on a site within easy reach of the sea, well-watered, and in the fertile foothills of the Akhḍar Mountains. The founder’s name was, or was changed to, Battus, a Libyan word meaning king. For some time friendly relations existed with the local peoples, and there was more intermarriage between Greek men and non-Greek women than was usual in Greek...

  •  

  • Magas (king of Cyrene)

  •  

  •     * Asoka India

  •  

  •       ...and contemporaries and to whom he sent envoys—these were Antiochus II Theos of Syria, the grandson of Seleucus I; Ptolemy II Philadelphus of Egypt; Antigonus II Gonatas of Macedonia; Magas of Cyrene; and Alexander (of either Epirus or Corinth). This reference has become the bedrock of Mauryan chronology. Local tradition asserts that he had contacts with Khotan and Nepal. Close...

  •     * Ptolemy II Philadelphus Ptolemy II Philadelphus

  • Was founded by Dorian Greeks, its agriculture prospered and economically grew because of the perfect climate, helping created 3 crops of silphium a plant to create spices and medicines. 

  • Cyrene was ruled by many kings, but in 331  choose to submit to Alexander the Great rather than fight and be destroyed, after his death it became part of general Ptomeny I of North African kingdom

  • A large part of Cyrene's population were Greek-speaking Jews invited to settle by Ptolemy 

  • During Vespasian times the  Jews revolted, when in 70 C.E. Titus his son 

  • destroyed the temple in Jerusalem,  and all Jews there were expelled or  slaughtered by the Romans

  •  

  • 96 BCE Rome took Cyrene

  • 78 BCE Cyrebe became a province of Rome

  • Jewish revolt in 115 CE caused widespread destruction.

  •  

  • The city of Cyrene thrived under Roman rule until factions within the city rebelled during the Jewish revolt of 115 AD. The heavy-handed Roman General Marcus Turbo suppressed the rebellion by killing over 20,000 civilians and destroying much of the city, which never fully recovered.

  •  

  • of the Greeks, asserted in his history that two sons of Abraham had joined Heracles in his expedition in Africa and that the Greek hero had married the daughter of one of them. On the other hand, Jason of Cyrene (c. 100 BCE) wrote a history, of which 2 Maccabees is a summary, glorifying the Temple and violently attacking the Jewish Hellenizers, but his manner of writing history is...

  •  

  •  

  • ancient Greek colony in Libya, founded c. 631 BCE by a group of emigrants from the island of Thera in the Aegean. Their leader, Battus, became the first king, founding the dynasty of the Battiads, whose members, named alternately Battus and Arcesilaus, ruled Cyrene for eight generations (until c. 440 bc). Under their rule, the city prospered economically and expanded, establishing its port of Apollonia (Marsa Sūsah) and the towns of Barce (al-Marj) and Euhesperides, or Berenice (Banghāzī).

  •  

  • After a further influx of Greek colonists c. 570 BCE, Greek–Libyan relations broke down; the new constitution granted under Battus III failed to allay dissension among the rival domestic factions, and in c. 525 Cyrene was subjected to a short-lived Persian invasion.

  •  

  • The republic that followed was politically undistinguished. Then, under the aegis of Ptolemaic Egypt (from 323 bc), Cyrene became one of the great intellectual centers of the classical world, boasting a medical school and such scholars as the geographer Eratosthenes and the philosopher Aristippus, founder of the Cyrenaics. In 96 BCE Cyrenaica came under Roman rule and in 67 bc was united with Crete to form a senatorial province, with Cyrene as the local capital. The two centuries of relative prosperity under the Romans—broken by a revolt of the Cyrenian Jews (115  CE)—were followed by a steady decline. With the Arab conquest (ad 642), the city ceased to exist.

  •  

  • The site of ancient Cyrene is partly occupied by the modern village of Shaḥḥāt in al-Jabal al-Akhḍar, eight miles southwest of Marsa Sūsah. Three main areas of the city have been excavated: the fountain and sanctuary of Apollo, where the Venus of Cyrene and a colossal statue of Apollo were found; the upper city,...

  • Cyrene (Greek mythology)

  •  

  • in Greek mythology, a nymph, the daughter of Hypseus (king of the Lapiths) and Chlidanope (a Naiad). One day Cyrene wrestled a lion that had attacked her father’s flocks. Apollo, who was watching, fell in love with her and carried her off from Mount Pelion, in Thessaly, to Libya. There he founded the city of Cyrene and made her its queen. The story is told by the 5th-century-bc lyric poet Pindar (Pythian Ode 9). Cyrene was the mother by Apollo of Aristaeus and Idmon the seer and by Ares of Diomedes of Thrace.Battus I (king of Cyrene)

  •  

  •     * founding of Battiad dynasty Cyrene

  •  

  •       ancient Greek colony in Libya, founded c. 631 bc by a group of emigrants from the island of Thera in the Aegean. Their leader, Battus, became the first king, founding the dynasty of the Battiads, whose members, named alternately Battus and Arcesilaus, ruled Cyrene for eight generations (until c. 440 BCE). Under their rule, the city prospered economically and expanded,...

  •     * Greek colonization of North Africa North Africa

  •  

  •       ...to Cyrene being founded (c. 630) on a site within easy reach of the sea, well watered, and in the fertile foothills of the Akhḍar Mountains. The founder’s name was, or was changed to, Battus, a Libyan word meaning king. For some time friendly relations existed with the local peoples, and there was more intermarriage between Greek men and non-Greek women than was usual in Greek...

  •  

  • Magas (king of Cyrene)

  •  

  •     * Asoka India

  •  

  •       ...and contemporaries and to whom he sent envoys—these were Antiochus II Theos of Syria, the grandson of Seleucus I; Ptolemy II Philadelphus of Egypt; Antigonus II Gonatas of Macedonia; Magas of Cyrene; and Alexander (of either Epirus or Corinth). This reference has become the bedrock of Mauryan chronology. Local tradition asserts that he had contacts with Khotan and Nepal. Close...

  •     * Ptolemy II Philadelphus Ptolemy II Philadelphus